Author : Carly Koinange, Global Program Lead, Share the Road Program UN Environment
Site of publication : UN Environnement Program
Type of publication : Report
Date of publication : 18th April 2020
The increasing population and the lack of non-motorized transport (NMT) infrastructure has led to congestion due to over-reliance on personal motor vehicles. There is an urgent need to develop high-quality transport systems that facilitate safe, efficient mobility for all urban residents.
Lagos is one of the fastest growing cities in the world with a population estimated between 18 and 20 million and an annual growth rate of 6 percent. The transport system in Lagos is predominantly road-based, and the available road infrastructure is greatly overstretched. Many streets and roads lack footpaths, and pedestrian footpaths are compromised by parking encroachment.
The lack of usable, dedicated pedestrian spaces means that pedestrians share the carriageway with fast-moving vehicles. High motor vehicle speeds along with the lack of dedicated spaces compromise NMT user safety. Flooded streets also mean that walking and cycling are not attractive options for transport.
Strategy development process
Under the auspices of the Share the Road project, ITDP and UN Environment developed an NMT Policy for the State of Lagos as well as a national NMT Policy for the Federal Ministry of Transport. The policies were prepared following extensive consultations including one-on-one stakeholder meetings and capacity building workshops. The team also conducted site visits in Lagos and Abuja to observe the quality of the existing walking and cycling facilities and understand the challenges faced by NMT users.
The Oct 2018 workshop was organized to present the draft Lagos NMT Policy and gather feedback from stakeholders. The event brought together representatives from government, elected bodies, academia, the private sector and civil society organizations. Participants gave their consent to move forward with adoption of the NMT Policy. As the next step, the draft Policy will be sent to the Executive Council for consideration and approval. Laws and regulations will be derived from the policy document by legal representatives of MOT and Ministry of Justice (MOJ). The Policy will then go to the House of Assembly for final review and approval.
NMT policy principles
- Universal access: Enable equitable access for all by improving access and mobility for all residents; promoting social and economic empowerment through the provision of improved low-cost mobility; facilitating safe access for children; enabling gender equity through the provision of non-motorized transport (NMT) and public transport facilities that are safe for women to use; enabling inclusion of persons with disabilities by creating NMT facilities that follow principles of universal design; and creating a changed culture that accepts the use of walking, cycling, and public transport as acceptable and aspirational means to move around in the city.
- Efficiency: Optimize the use of resources such as space, funds, time, and energy by investing in NMT and public transport modes that consume fewer resources per person per trip compared to personal motor vehicles (PMV) and by encouraging dense, compact and mixed-use development that contributes to shorter trips and allows more people live and work close to PT facilities.
- Safety: Improve road safety and personal security by improving the management of traffic conflicts; reducing road crashes, and deaths and creating public spaces that are safe at all times of the day for all users.
- Resilience to climate change: Reduce local and global environmental impacts of Lagos’s transport system by expanding the use of zero-pollution NMT modes and low- pollution motorized modes, helping to improve the city’s air quality.
- Collaboration and public participation: Enable community participation by involving residents, businesses, and other stakeholders in the preparation of designs to foster the community’s active use and sense of ownership of these spaces.
NTM policy initiatives
- Street design standards: Arterial and sub-arterial streets to be developed as “complete streets.” The planning and design of road facilities will abide by the hierarchy of road users (from highest to lowest priority). With walking and cycling being high priority and parking of motor vehicles being low priority. Complete streets should have: Dedicated spaces for non-motorized transport modes; designated spaces as meeting points and street vending; designated free parking for cycles where on-street parking is provided for personal motorized vehicles; traffic calming with at-grade crossing facilities for pedestrians; measures to prioritize public transport; street trees to provide shade for pedestrians and cyclists and modern urban design including appropriate street furniture to promote attractive public space-making.
- Land use-transport integration: The government will adopt land use regulations and policies that incentivize higher density commercial and residential development within walking distance of major public transport corridors. Regulations and transport investments should direct the majority of urban growth along public transport corridors and reinforce existing urban centers by providing good public transport access.
- Efficient public transport systems: The government will support the introduction of high-quality public transport systems that are affordable, reliable, convenient, safe, and accessible to all, regardless of age, income, gender, ability or social standing. The responsibility of ensuring a high-quality public transport system ultimately rests with the government, regardless of whether the public transport system is operated by the government or private service providers.
- Regulation and enforcement: The government should regulate and monitor shared mobility services by ensuring that all keke operators are part of a registered association; create an identification system for keke operators; work with associations to expand access to safety and customer service training for operators; monitor operations to encourage helmet usage and safe driving, and establish designated stands that maintain clear space on footpaths and cycle tracks.
- Transit oriented development: Urban design and land-use planning regulations should support the creation of compact communities with access to high-quality public transport, walking and cycling links, often called transit-oriented development. Such developments that accommodate residences, jobs, places of commerce and recreation and other uses within walking distance of high-capacity public transport stations can help reduce trip lengths, congestion and dependence on personal motor vehicles.
- Traffic calming initiatives: Along major school access routes, the following interventions should be employed to improve access and safety: 30 km/h speed limits within a 200m radius of the school; traffic calming elements to ensure that vehicles follow the speed limit; traffic calmed pedestrian crossings and signs indicating school zone presence, pedestrian crossings, and speed limits.
- Mobility guidelines: Federal highways passing through urban centers should be designed as urban streets with footpaths, cycle tracks, at-grade pedestrian crossings, dedicated facilities for public transport and other complete street elements.
- Bicycle network: Implementing bicycle sharing systems to serve short trips and improve last-mile connectivity.
- Universal access: Cities are required to design elements of the transport system to be accessible to all users including those with physical disabilities, in compliance with national and universal access codes.
Successful implementation of NMT projects will involve cooperation among multiple stakeholders. The government will develop appropriate frameworks to coordinate with the relevant key departments, both at the state and local levels.
All cities with a population of over one million will be required to develop a Sustainable Mobility Plan (SMP). An SMP will:
- Set a vision and quantitative goals for transport system improvements.
- Outline a comprehensive time-bound program for expanding and improving NMT facilities, public transport, and travel demand management.
- Include explicit measures to reduce the absolute number of trips by personal motor vehicles and encourage a shift from personal motor vehicles to public modes and NMT.
- Describe land use reforms to complement the proposed transport improvements.
- The government will ensure that all projects involving the construction of new streets or retrofitting of existing streets improve safety and convenience for NMT users per the policy.
- The Federal Government will create urban street design guidelines, known as the Nigeria Street Design Manual (NSDM).
Ten-year goals from the Federal-NMT Policy :
- Increased mode share of walking, cycling and public transport
- Reduction in the use of personal motor vehicles (PMV)
- Improved road safety
- Improved air quality