Présentation du Ghana

Présentation du Ghana

WATHI propose une sélection de documents sur le contexte économique, social et politique de la Gambie. Chaque document est présenté sous forme d’extraits qui peuvent faire l’objet de légères modifications. Les notes de bas ou de fin de page ne sont pas reprises dans les versions de WATHI. Nous vous invitons à consulter les documents originaux pour toute citation et tout travail de recherche.

Government of Ghana

Ghana’s political history from 1957 at a glance

1957 – independence, Nkrumah of CPP is PM
1960 – declared republic, one party system, presidential system
1966 – military overthrow of 1st republic
1969 – 2nd republic, Busia of PP is PM
1972 – military overthrow of 2nd republic
1978 – palace coup to restructure military government
1979 – junior officer uprising and military housecleaning
1979 – ushered third republic, Limann of PNP is President
1981 – overthrow of the constitutional PNP gov’t by the PNDC military junta
1983 – Attempted overthrow of the PNDC junta by other junior army men
1992 – Rawlings of NDC is Dem elected as President
1996 – Rawlings of NDC is re-elected
2001 – Kuffour (NPP) is President
2005 – Kufuor begins second-term in office
2009 – John Evans Atta Mills (NDC) is President
2012 – John Dramani Mahama (NDC) is sworn in as President following death of President Mills
2013 – John Dramani Mahama (NDC) is sworn in as President after winning the 2012 general elections


The World Fact Book, 2016

Central Intelligence Agency



Formed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory, Ghana in 1957 became the first sub-Saharan country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. Ghana endured a long series of coups before Lt. Jerry RAWLINGS took power in 1981 and banned political parties. After approving a new constitution and restoring multiparty politics in 1992, RAWLINGS won presidential elections in 1992 and 1996 but was constitutionally prevented from running for a third term in 2000. John KUFUOR succeeded him and was reelected in 2004. John Atta MILLS won the 2008 presidential election and took over as head of state, but he died in July 2012 and was constitutionally succeeded by his vice president, John Dramani MAHAMA, who subsequently won the December 2012 presidential election.

Demographic profile

Ghana has a young age structure, with approximately 57% of the population under the age of 25. Its total fertility rate fell significantly during the 1980s and 1990s but has stalled at around four children per woman for the last few years. Fertility remains higher in the northern region than the Greater Accra region. On average, desired fertility has remained stable for several years; urban dwellers want fewer children than rural residents. Increased life expectancy, due to better health care, nutrition, and hygiene, and reduced fertility have increased Ghana’s share of elderly persons; Ghana’s proportion of persons aged 60+ is among the highest in sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty has declined in Ghana, but it remains pervasive in the northern region, which is susceptible to droughts and floods and has less access to transportation infrastructure, markets, fertile farming land, and industrial centers. The northern region also has lower school enrollment, higher illiteracy, and fewer opportunities for women.

Ghana was a country of immigration in the early years after its 1957 independence, attracting labor migrants largely from Nigeria and other neighboring countries to mine minerals and harvest cocoa – immigrants composed about 12% of Ghana’s population in 1960. In the late 1960s, worsening economic and social conditions discouraged immigration, and hundreds of thousands of immigrants, mostly Nigerians, were expelled.

During the 1970s, severe drought and an economic downturn transformed Ghana into a country of emigration; neighboring Cote d’Ivoire was the initial destination. Later, hundreds of thousands of Ghanaians migrated to Nigeria to work in its booming oil industry, but most were deported in 1983 and 1985 as oil prices plummeted. Many Ghanaians then turned to more distant destinations, including other parts of Africa, Europe, and North America, but the majority continued to migrate within West Africa. Since the 1990s, increased emigration of skilled Ghanaians, especially to the US and the UK, drained the country of its health care and education professionals. Internally, poverty and other developmental disparities continue to drive Ghanaians from the north to the south, particularly to its urban centers.

Flag description

 Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green, with a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; red symbolizes the blood shed for independence, yellow represents the country’s mineral wealth, while green stands for its forests and natural wealth; the black star is said to be the lodestar of African freedom.

Présentation du Ghana, 2016

Ministère des Affaires étrangères, France


Données générales

Nom officiel : République du Ghana
Président de la République : M. John Mahama

Données géographiques

Nom officiel : République du Ghana
Superficie : 238 537 km²
Capitale : Accra
Villes principales : Accra, Kumasi, Sekondi-Takoradi, Tamale
Langue (s) officielle (s) : Anglais
Monnaie : cedi
Fête nationale : 6 mars (proclamation de l’indépendance en 1957)

Données démographiques

Population : 26,8 millions d’habitants (BM, 2015)
Croissance démographique : 2,35 % (CIA, 2015)
Espérance de vie : 66,2 ans (CIA, 2015)
Taux d’alphabétisation : 76,6% (CIA, 2015)
Religion (CIA World Factbook) : Christianisme 68.8% (Pentecôtisme 24.1%, Protestantisme 18.6%, Catholicisme 15.1%, autres 11%), islam 15.9%, animisme 8.5%
Indice de développement humain (PNUD) : 138 ème/187 (2014)
Classement Transparency International : 61ème sur 175 pays (2014)

Données économiques

PIB : 35,9 milliards de dollars (2015, DG Trésor)
PIB par habitant : 1342 dollars (DG Trésors, 2015)
Taux de croissance : 3% (FMI, 2015)
Taux de chômage : 4,2% (Banque Mondiale, 2010)
Taux d’inflation : 17,3 % (FMI, 2015)
Principaux clients (DG Trésor, 2015) : UE (28%), Iran (20,4%), Afrique du Sud (18,2%)Principaux fournisseurs (DG trésor, 2015) : UE (31,2%), Chine (22,8%), Inde (6,1%)

Part des principaux secteurs d’activités dans le PIB (Ghana Statistical service, 2015) :

  • agriculture : 22 %
  • industrie : 27%
  • services : 52%


Credits Photo: Ghana Embassy, Seoul

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